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Monday, February 13, 2017

03 June 1813 – Summary of Campaign in South Germany


Battles fought in Southern Germany

Campaign History
At the start of February1813 Napoleon considered the Austrians to be allies, and they had agreed to hold the Russian Army east of Berlin at the river Oder, whilst he reorganized the French Army behind the river Rhine.   He was unaware of the secret allied treaty which agreed that the Prussia, Russia, Austria, England and Spain would all declare war on France.    He was also unaware that the Austrians had concentrated their army at Linz on 20 January 1813.

On 10 February 1813 the Austrian army crossed the Bavarian border and occupied Munich.  

Napoleon ordered Oudinot to concentrate the Bavarian and Baden armies and form the Third French Army at Stuttgart.   On 26 February 1813 they became operational and were determined to teach the Austrians a lesson for their betrayal.

1 March 1813 – Augsburg Campaign.   Oudinot wins at first Augsburg, first Donauworth and third Donauworth.   Schwartzenberg wins at second Donauworth  and first and second Augsburg.   The Austrians win the campaign.

19 March 1813 – Ulm Campaign.   Schwartzenberg wins both battles at Ulm and Goppingen.   Oudinot is forced to retreat again.

27 March 1813 – Stuttgart Campaign.   Oudinot wins the first battle at Stuttgart.   However the Austrians win Ludwigsburg and second Stuttgart.  They also win the campaign.
                                                               
5 April 1813 – Armistice.   After a month of non-stop marching and fighting both armies were in a poor shape.   Both needed time to regroup, resupply and reinforce.  Napoleon offered a seven day truce and Schwartzenberg eagerly accepted.  The terms of the truce was that the Austrian Army would retreat to Augsburg and the French Army would hold Stuttgart.   Unknown to Napoleon the Austrians were about to move their main army north to Prague to be closer to the Prussians and Russians.

12 April 1813 – Bamberg Campaign. Oudinot moved his army north to Darmstadt to counter the Austrian move to Prague.   Oudinot moved to take Bamberg, but Schwartzenberg occupied it first.   The French won at first Konigsfeld but were defeated when the Austrians counter attacked and won second Konigsfeld.   The Austrians won the campaign.

25 May 1813 – Erlangen Campaign.   Oudinot is determined to reverse the run of Austrian victories.   Both armies advance to take and hold the city of Erlangen.  The Bavarians lost the first battle at Weiden, but win the next one at Gremsdorf.  However the Austrians also win all three battles at Erlangen.   Once more the Austrians win the campaign.                     

Reference

The campaign diary contains comprehensive details of the whole campaign.   The labels on the right are an index to various parts of the campaign.

01 - introduction to the whole 1813 campaign
02 - the five campaign areas
09 - introduction to the campaign in Southern Germany
10 - daily diary for the campaign in Southern Germany
11 - battle reports of all battles fought in Southern Germany

Saturday, February 11, 2017

03 June 1813 – Southern Germany – End of Erlangen Campaign


Tactical Map
The campaign opened with both armies marching towards Erlangen.
Oudinot suffered a major defeat at the first battle near Erlangen.
He also lost a minor battle at Weiden, but defeated the Austrians at Gremsdorf.
The Austrians won again at Erlangen, and took possession of the city
Oudinot launched a major counter attack, but again lost at Erlangen
By the end of the campaign both armies had suffered major casualties
But the Austrians held Erlangen, and thus won the campaign.
Strategic Map
The Erlangen campaign was the fifth phase in Southern Germany between the Third French and the Austrian armies.   It lasted 10 days and there were five battles.  The French won one and the Austrians won four.

The Austrians won the Erlangen campaign phase.

The campaign started on 6 December 2016 and ended on 11 February 2017.